Sunday, August 8, 2010

Summertime Blues: 1000s Missed

I might as well wish they had wings, but I wish politicians worked on real problems rather than spending their time undermining the other party.

You may have learned by now that Senators Tom Coburn, M.D. and John McCain have issued a list of 100 projects funded by The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act that they claim are a waste of tax dollars.

The press release starts out this way:
(WASHINGTON, DC) - U.S. Senators Tom Coburn, M.D. (R-OK) and John McCain (R-AZ) today released a new oversight report: “Summertime Blues: 100 Stimulus Projects that Give Taxpayers the Blues.” The report, a third in a series, highlights questionable stimulus projects that are wasteful, mismanaged, and overall unsuccessful in creating jobs. The projects featured in the report cannot be considered as an investment in long-term priorities to create and sustain economic growth that the Stimulus was designed to do.
Kudos to them for doing so, but their motivation seems more political than anything else. Their goal seems to be an undermining of the democrats. If their motivations were genuinely focused on improving government decision-making and oversight, they could very easily have written a somewhat similar report anytime since they were originally elected.

The report doesn’t explain why they chose this infinitesimally tiny sliver of boondoggles to showcase. One hundred studies out of what must be hundreds of thousands of projects doesn’t really seem like much of a failure of oversight. I think they could have found many thousands more if they had taken the time to look or were a little better informed. If only they had looked a little more carefully at the National Institute’s of Health’s public welfare recipients, the research universities, they could have produced an encyclopedia of wasted tax money.

They did though call attention to five NIH studies, which I have listed below. These are copied and pasted here along with the associated references. In the original document, the links were not active, and I haven’t taken the time to fix them. But they are here if you choose to look them up.
20. Monkey and Chimpanzee Responses to Inequity (Atlanta, GA) - $677,462184
While much is known about how humans respond to inequity and injustice, researchers at Georgia State University are using almost $700,000 in stimulus funds to study why monkeys respond negatively to inequity and unfairness.185 “Seven species of primates will be asked to make decisions about whether or not to accept rewards in a series of studies in which their outcomes vary relative to their social partners.
The influence of social factors like group membership and individual factors like personality will also be investigated. The results of this research will clarify how decision-making is affected by unequal outcomes.”186 Previous research by the investigator on this project had found that “Chimpanzees respond with temper tantrums if they do not get what they desire,” and that “Capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees both respond negatively to distributional inequity.”187
184 Recovery.gov, Grants – Award Summary, “Georgia State University Research Foundation, Inc., Award No. 0847351,
http://www.recovery.gov/Transparency/RecipientReportedData/Pages/RecipientProjectSummary508.aspx?Award
IDSUR=43460&AwardType=Grants.
185 Website of the National Science Foundation, “CAREER: Understanding Responses to Inequitable Outcomes in Non-Human Primates,” Abstract Number #0847351,
http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0847351&WT.z_pims_id=5423.
186 Website of the National Science Foundation, “CAREER: Understanding Responses to Inequitable Outcomes in
Non-Human Primates,” Abstract Number #0847351,
http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0847351&WT.z_pims_id=5423.
187 Brosnan, Sarah F., “Nonhuman Species’ Reactions to Inequity and their
Implications for Fairness,” Social Justice Research, Vol. 19, No. 2, June 2006,
http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwcbs/pdf/Brosnan%20SJR%202006.pdf, accessed July 21, 2010

[The entry for Project 28, below, has the accompanying picture of an apparently frightened chimpanzee associated with it. I suspect the actual authors don’t know the difference between apes and monkeys.]
28. Monkeys Get High for Science (Winston-Salem, NC) - $144,541
Researchers at Wake Forest University think that, in at least one case, it is good to monkey around with stimulus dollars. The Department of Health and Human Services has sent $144,541 to the Winston-Salem college to see how monkeys react under the influence of cocaine. The project, titled “Effect of Cocaine Self-Administration on Metabotropic Glutamate Systems,” would have the monkeys self-administer the drugs while researchers monitor and study their glutamate levels. 224 When asked how studying drug-crazed primates would improve the national economy, a Wake Forest University Medical School Spokesman said, “It's actually the continuation of a job that might not still be there if it hadn't been for the stimulus funding. And it’s a good job.” He added, “It’s also very worthwhile research.”225
224 Recovery.Gov, Grants – Award Summary, “Wake Forest University,” Award Number 1R03DA026590-01A1,
http://www.recovery.gov/Transparency/RecipientReportedData/pages/RecipientProjectSummary508.aspx?AwardI
dSur=8352&AwardType=Grants
225 Niolet, Benjamin, “Stimulus Funds Pay for Monkey Research in NC,” McClatchy, March 8, 2010,
http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/03/08/89974/stimulus-funds-pay-for-monkey.html?storylink=addthis.

Project 69, like Project 93 just below it, is an example of using public funds to convince the public that using public funds for animal-based research is justified. In other words, propaganda. You are being taxed to pay for a program to convince journalists to write nice things about questionable research. Wake Forest University is particularly well known in certain circles for its addiction research with monkeys and rats. There are currently 29 ongoing publicly-funded projects on addiction in animals there, costing taxpayers about $10 million a year.
69. Addiction Studies Program for Journalists (Winston-Salem, NC) - $266,505
Wake Forest University is using $266,505 in stimulus funds to continue its annual science education workshops for reporters.444 “These workshops employ an interactive, problem-based format that engages the skills and knowledge of working journalists. Participants will have ample time to interact with program faculty — internationally known scientists, teachers of journalism, award-winning journalists from the print and broadcast media, and others who have made important contributions to the drug-abuse field.”445
444 Recovery.gov, Grants – Award Summary, “Wake Forest University,” Award Number 2R25DA01271811,
http://origins.recovery.gov/Transparency/RecipientReportedData/pages/RecipientProjectSummary508.aspx?Award
IdSur=20213&AwardType=Grants.
445 Website of the Addiction Studies Program, http://www.addictionstudies.org/inag-workshop.html, accessed July 25, 2010.

Project 93 should remove any doubt about the National Institutes of Health’s primary motivation.
93. NIH Spends Stimulus Money to Promote the Impact of Its Stimulus Projects (Silver Spring, MD) - $363,760546
When does a federal project cross the line from simple self-promotion into propaganda? Palladian Partners Inc. of Silver Spring, Maryland was awarded $363,760 to promote the good things being done with stimulus money by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).547 The project requires Palladian to develop “web-based real life stories that underscore job and infrastructure creation and accelerated ARRA research findings.”548 Indeed, interested citizens can go to the NIH Recovery Act website and learn about the $12.2 million stimulus grant NIH is spending on “Facebook for Scientists”549 and another story on how “Researchers Pull in Big Bucks Under Recovery Act.”550
546 Recovery.gov, Contracts – Award Summary, “Palladian Partners, Inc.,” Award Number HHSN263200700630PMod#5,
http://www.recovery.gov/Transparency/RecipientReportedData/pages/RecipientProjectSummary508.aspx?AwardI
dSur=21694&AwardType=Contracts.
547 USAspending.gov, all awards for Palladian Partners Inc.,
http://www.usaspending.gov/search?query=HHSN263200700630P&Search=Search, accessed July 24, 2010.
548 FedBizOpps.gov, “Development of Web-base real life stories,” Solicitation Number NIH1242467,
https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&tab=core&id=b2d36d38410e39065dbf2f1e34bd1f48&_cview=1.
549 Purdy, Michael, “Stimulus Grant Establishes ‘Facebook for Scientists,” November 4, 2009,
http://recovery.nih.gov/stories/facebookforscientists.php, Accessed July 20, 2010
550 Macron, Doug, “Rockefeller, OSU miRNA Researchers Pull in Big Bucks Under Recovery Act,” Website of the
National Institutes of Health, October 22, 2009, http://recovery.nih.gov/stories/rockefeller_osu_mirna.php.

95. A Better Way to Freeze Rat DNA (Columbia, MO) - $180,935
For many years, scientists have found laboratory rats to be good test subjects for studying human disease. One problem, however, is that once you deep-freeze rat sperm, it apparently becomes less useful when unfrozen. Solution: study the freezing process for rat sperm. Calling it an “urgent need,”558 scientists at the University of Missouri received stimulus funds “to develop freezing protocols for epididymal rat
sperm which would allow reconstitution of genetics by using standard artificial insemination and in-vitro fertilization methods.”559 The scientists note that “[o]ver the last few years, our laboratory has generated ample amount of data related with optimal sperm handling.”560
558 Stimuluswatch.org Website. http://stimuluswatch.org/2.0/awards/view/42256/rat-sperm-cryobanking-forgenetic-
resources, accessed July 17, 2010.
559 Stimuluswatch.org, http://stimuluswatch.org/2.0/awards/view/42256/rat-sperm-cryobaning-for-geneticresources, accessed July 17, 2010.
560 Recovery.gov, Grants – Award Summary, “University of Missouri System,” Award Number 1R21RR02591301,
http://www.recovery.gov/Transparency/RecipientReportedData/page/RecipientProjectSummary508.aspx?AwardIdSur=42256&AwardType=Grants.


This all got me to wondering about the total cost to taxpayers for the animal-based projects funded by the stimulus bill at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

It turns out that stimulus dollars went to 174 projects and that 81 of them, more or less (sometimes it is a little tricky to determine) were animal-based.

These projects generally amount to a waste of public dollars if the goal is the improvement in treating or preventing human diseases and other maladies. This claim is science-based. Claims to the contrary are faith-based or anecdotal.

The few published meta-analyses and systematic reviews of animal-based research’s contribution to improvements in human health care have uniformly reported that there is a wide disconnect between animal-based research findings and patient care. The reasons suggested for this have included poor research design, a failure to avoid bias, a lack of standardization between labs (something that is an accepted norm in human-based studies), and the inherent confounds associated with the biological differences between species. In the jargon of the industry, animal studies have a dismal translation rate.

See for example:

Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans? Pound P, Ebrahim S, Sandercock P, Bracken MB, Roberts I; Reviewing Animal Trials Systematically (RATS) Group. BMJ. 2004.

Evolution and translation of research findings: from bench to where? Ioannidis JP. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006.

Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. Kilkenny C, Parsons N, Kadyszewski E, Festing MF, Cuthill IC, Fry D, Hutton J, Altman DG. PLoS One. 2009.

The fact that there are few similarly well-designed studies making contrary claims about the results of the animal-based research enterprise is suggestive. This absence of science-based proof that animal studies produce benefit is unlikely to be the result of no one trying to prove that the animal studies are productive. More likely, the people who have attempted to do so have been embarrassed into silence by their results.

A larger more insidious problem is that those receiving public funding to conduct the studies have zero interest in looking critically at their results. That is, there is a strong bias to maintain the status quo no matter how much pain and suffering the animals experience and no matter how little it helps humans. The house mortgage must be paid.

Below are the approximately 81 out of the 174 projects at UW-Madison funded by the stimulus bill. Given what we know about the unlikelihood of them doing any good, most could have been included in Coburn and McCain’s list.

3R01GM069420-05S1
MODULAR DESIGN OF SYNTHETIC TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORS [in fruit flies]
ANSARI, ASEEM Z
$125,437

3R01DK066369-05S1
GENETIC MAPPING / BETA-CELL DECOMPOSITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES [in mice]
ATTIE, ALAN D
$58,000

3R01DK066349-05S1
NEUROVASCULAR AND BEHAVORIAL RESPONSE TO CYSTITIS [in mice]
BJORLING, DALE E
$76,099

3R01DC004428-09S1
CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT OF THE SCARRED VOCAL FOLD [in rats]
BLESS, DIANE M
$177,086

3R01AI066219-05S1
MATERNAL MICROCHIMERISM AND NEONATAL TOLERANCE [in mice]
BURLINGHAM, WILLIAM J
$10,092

3R01AI066219-05S2
MATERNAL MICROCHIMERISM AND NEONATAL TOLERANCE [in mice]
BURLINGHAM, WILLIAM J
$107,413

3R01DK056238-08S2
THE SHH-GLI PATHWAY REGULATES PROSTATE GROWTH [in mice]
BUSHMAN, WADE A.
$99,458

3R01DK056238-08S1
THE SHH-GLI PATHWAY REGULATES PROSTATE GROWTH [in mice]
BUSHMAN, WADE A.
$5,661

3P51RR000167-48S2
WISCONSIN NATIONAL PRIMATE RESEARCH CENTER SUPPORT
CADWALLADER, MARTIN
$921,484

3R01HL086939-03S1
VASCULAR COLLAGEN ACCUMULATION & MECHANICAL MECHANISMS IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION [in mice]
CHESLER, NAOMI C
$22,643

5R21MH086014-02
[F-18]MEFWAY PET TO MEASURE 5-HT1A RECEPTORS IN GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS [in rhesus monkeys]
CHRISTIAN, BRADLEY
$218,870
“In this proposal, our goal is to use PET imaging of the serotonin system in the nonhuman primate model to study the effects of prenatal stress on the serotonin 5HT1A receptor. Particularly, to examine if carriers with a short variation of the gene for encoding the serotonin transporter are more profoundly affected by prenatal stress than those with long gene variation.”

3R01HD057064-01A2S1
GESTATIONAL STRESS AND IMPAIRED IRON HOMEOSTASIS IN THE YOUNG [rhesus monkey] INFANT
COE, CHRISTOPHER L.
$141,834
[Chris Coe has stated that he opposes the creation of a citizens’ panel to consider the treatment of monkeys at the university and the ethics of primate experimentation.]

3R01EY008768-17S1
MOLECULAR STUDIES OF RETINAL DEGENERATION IN DROSOPHILA [fruit flies]
COLLEY, NANSI J.
$210,692

5R21NS065352-02
A FORWARD GENETIC APPROACH TO STUDYING GLIOMA FORMATION AND THERAPY RESISTANCE [in mice]
COLLIER, LARA S
$207,388

1P30DC010754-01
P30 APPLICATION [to hire Michelle Ciucci to experiment on rats for the] "VOICE AND SWALLOW NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH CORE"
CONNOR, NADINE PATTAKOS
$398,770

3R01DC008149-03S3
AGING, EXERCISE AND MECHANISMS OF ALTERED TONGUE FUNCTION [in rats]
CONNOR, NADINE PATTAKOS
$235,483

3R01DC008149-03S1
AGING, EXERCISE AND MECHANISMS OF ALTERED TONGUE FUNCTION [in rats]
CONNOR, NADINE PATTAKOS
$8,862

5R01HL095120-02
THE ROLE OF ZINC FINGER GENES IN LEUKEMOGENESIS [in mice]
DOVAT, SINISA
$367,370

5R01CA063677-16
ANALYSES OF PROGRESSION TO COLON CANCER IN A SPECTRUM OF PATHWAYS [in mice and rats]
DOVE, WILLIAM FRANKLIN
$367,370

3R01CA125591-03S1
THE PIRC RAT, A NEWLY GENERATED MODEL FOR FAMILIAL HUMAN COLON CANCER
DOVE, WILLIAM FRANKLIN
$31,025

3R01DK066600-05S1
BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF IRON RESPONSIVE ELEMENTS [in mice]
EISENSTEIN, RICHARD S.
$123,240

3R01DC001362-18S1
INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM IN HAIR CELLS [in gerbils, rats, and “birds”]
FETTIPLACE, ROBERT
$148,632

3U19AI070503-04S1
MECHANISMS OF RHINOVIRUS-INDUCED EXACERBATIONS OF ASTHMA [in humans and in mice]
GERN, JAMES E.
$603,162

5R01HD037120-07
UTERINE NK CELLS IN PRIMATE PREGNANCY
GOLOS, THADDEUS G
$591,326

3R21HD053925-02S1
A PRIMATE IN VITRO IMPLANTATION MODEL
GOLOS, THADDEUS G
$149,558
[Ted Golos has stated that he opposes the creation of a citizens’ panel to consider the treatment of monkeys at the university and the ethics of primate experimentation.]

5R01CA077494-12
WKY RAT GENETIC MODEL FOR BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY
GOULD, MICHAEL N
$319,318

5R01HL077196-06
TITIN SPLICING MECHANISMS AND PHYSICAL IMPLICATIONS [for rats]
GREASER, MARION L
$363,06

3R01AR053815-12S1
PROCOLLAGEN C-PROTEINASE ENHANCERS: IN VIVO ROLES [in mice and zebra fish]
GREENSPAN, DANIEL S
$416,434

3R01GM076244-04S1
ROLE FOR ZIC GENES IN THE DEVELOPING MIDBRAIN [in zebra fish]
GRINBLAT, YEVGENYA
$136,466

5R21AI076707-02
FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN NKT CELLS AND MYELOID DCS WITHIN MURINE SCID [severe combined immunodeficient mice] HOSTS
GUMPERZ, JENNY E
$185,625

1RC1DK086831-01
METAGENETIC ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR [in the gut of the in the moth, the tobacco hornworm]
HANDELSMAN, JO E
$475,105

3R01GM058038-10S1
MECHANISMS OF JUNCTIONAL ACTIN RECRUITMENT IN C. ELEGANS [a small worm]
HARDIN, JEFFREY D
$50,240

3R21NS061150-01A2S1
VOLTAGE IMAGING WITH GENETICALLY ENCODED OPTICAL PROBES [in fresh living mouse brain tissue]
JACKSON, MEYER B.
$87,096

3P01HL088594-02S1
ROLE OF EOSINOPHILS IN AIRWAY INFLAMMATION AND REMODELING [in mice?]
JARJOUR, NIZAR N
$8,934
$8,934 [two matching amounts]

5R01EY018567-02
AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS STUDIES IN VIVO [using rhesus monkeys] AND IN VITRO
KAUFMAN, PAUL LEON
$371,073

3R21EY018370-01A2S1
EXTRA-LENTICULAR ASPECTS OF ACCOMMODATION AND PRESBYOPIA [in rhesus monkeys]
KAUFMAN, PAUL LEON
$389,400

R01AI069274-04S1
PANDEMIC POTENTIAL OF H5N1 INFLUENZA VIRUSES [in mice, ferrets, and monkeys]
KAWAOKA, YOSHIHIRO
$499,900

1R01AI077593-01A2
MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS OF EBOLAVIRUS INFECTION [in monkeys]
KAWAOKA, YOSHIHIRO
$459,686

3R01HL068673-07S1
TGF-BETA IN INTIMAL HYPERPLASIA AFTER VASCULAR BYPASS [in rats]
$59,013

3R01HL068673-06S1
TGF-BETA IN INTIMAL HYPERPLASIA AFTER VASCULAR BYPASS [in rats]
KENT, K CRAIG
$59,946

3R21EY017970-02S1
NOVEL MITOCHONDRIAL TARGETED NEUROPROTECTANTS FOR GLAUCOMA [in rats?]
LEVIN, LEONARD A
$222,750

3R01DK071801-04S3
MASS SPECTROMETRIC STUDIES OF NEUROPEPTIDES IN FEEDING [crabs]
LI, LINGJUN
$26,000

3R01HL049210-10S1
ENDOTHELIUM-DERIVED VASODILATORS IN [sheep] PREGNANCY
MAGNESS, RONALD R
$9,478
and
$9,477

1RC2CA149023-01
NON-PEPTIDIC HIV VACCINE [testing in rhesus monkeys infected with SHIV]
MALKOVSKY, MIROSLAV
$500,000

5R01DA026067-02
PIN1 IN SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY AND TRANSLATION [in mice?]
MALTER, JAMES S
$371,250

3R01DK040428-21S1
CALCIUM REGULATION OF SECRETION IN NEUROENDOCRINE [rat?] CELLS
MARTIN, THOMAS F. J.
$37,900

3P01NS042803-07S1
ALEXANDER DISEASE [in mice]: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
MESSING, ALBEE
$38,907

3P01NS042803-07S2
ALEXANDER DISEASE [in mice]: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS
MESSING, ALBEE
$88,917

5R01AG033493-02
TRANSTHYRETIN'S REGULATORY ROLE IN BETA-AMYLOID AGGREGATION AND TOXICITY [in mice]
MURPHY, REGINA M. et al.
$431,190

5R01HL093282-02
BIOMATERIALS FOR LOCAL REGULATION OF GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING [in mice?]
MURPHY, WILLIAM L
$359,144

3R01DK042835-16S1
PARENTERAL NUTRITION: INTESTINAL METABOLISM/ADAPTATION [in rats and mice]
NEY, DENISE M
$99,844

3R01DK062388-08S2
ROLE OF STEAROYL-COA DESATURASE IN [mouse] METABOLISM
NTAMBI, JAMES M.
$91,570

3R24RR021745-04S1
IMMUNOGENETICS OF PRIMATES USED FOR BIOTERROR RESEARCH
OCONNOR, DAVID H
$79,923
[David O’Connor has stated that he opposes the creation of a citizens’ panel to consider the treatment of monkeys at the university and the ethics of primate experimentation.]

5R21DK078889-02
CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDODERM STEM CELLS DERIVED FROM MURINE [mouse] ESCS
ODORICO, JON S
$218,870

3R21HL089679-01A2S1
DIRECTED CELL FUSION FOR THE TREATMENT OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION [in mice]
OGLE, BRENDA M
$204,225

1RC1DK086410-01
QUANTITATIVE MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEOMICS OF HEALTHY AND DIABETIC MICE
PAGLIARINI, DAVID
$475,423

2R01AR045173-05
BONE CELL REGULATION OF THE VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENE [in mice and humans]
PIKE, J. WESLEY
$360,338

3R01DK074993-03S2
MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF RANKL ACTIVATION IN [mouse] OSTEOBLASTS
PIKE, J. WESLEY
$96,192

3R01DK074993-03S1
MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF RANKL ACTIVATION IN [mouse] OSTEOBLASTS
PIKE, J. WESLEY
$617,681

3R01DC003693-06S1
MULTISENSORY PROCESSING IN THE BEHAVING PREPARATION [a euphemism for an animal surgically implanted with instruments or experimentally mutilated, in this case rhesus monkeys]
POPULIN, LUIS C
$140,521

3R01CA109462-04S1
ROLE OF AN RNA-BINDING PROTEIN IN [mouse] MAMMARY CARCINOGENESIS
ROSS, JEFFREY
$238,732

5R21DA027191-02
CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SIGMA-2 RECEPTOR [in rats]
RUOHO, ARNOLD EINO
$222,750

3R01DK080345-02S1
SYMPATHETIC REGULATION OF AMPK IN THE CONTROL OF NON-SHIVERING THERMOGENESIS [in mice]
SAUPE, KURT WILLIAM
$42,152

3R01AA010079-13S1
MODERATE LEVEL PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE IN PRIMATES
SCHNEIDER, MARY L
$331,832

3P30HD003352-43S1
WISCONSIN CENTER ON MENTAL RETARDATION: CORE SUPPORT [including “rodent models”]
SELTZER, MARSHA MAILICK
$339,831

3P30HD003352-43S2
WISCONSIN CENTER ON MENTAL RETARDATION: CORE SUPPORT [including “rodent models”]
SELTZER, MARSHA MAILICK
$304,885

5R01EY018179-02
CYP1B1 AND RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (in mice? and rats?)
SHEIBANI, NADER
$362,521

5R21DK082888-02
INVESTIGATING THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN WNT AND FGF SIGNALING IN PROSTATE INITIATION [in mice?]
SUN, XIN
$185,625

3R01AI059804-05S2
DIRECT REGULATION OF CD8 T CELLS BY INTERFERON GAMMA
SURESH, MARULASIDDAPPA
$12,429

3R01AI059804-05S1
DIRECT REGULATION OF CD8 T CELLS BY INTERFERON GAMMA [in mice]
SURESH, MARULASIDDAPPA
$8,862

3R01HD041590-09S1
GENETIC CONTROL OF MYELINATION BY EGR2 AND NAB PROTEINS [in mice? and rats?]
SVAREN, JOHN P
$8,862

3R01HD041590-08S1
GENETIC CONTROL OF MYELINATION BY EGR2 AND NAB PROTEINS [in mice? and rats?]
SVAREN, JOHN P
$8,862

5R21AI081120-02
ELEMENTAL IMAGING OF M. TUBERCULOSIS DURING INFECTION [in mice]
TALAAT, ADEL M
$181,745

3R01HD011355-26S1
HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL OF PUBERTY [in rhesus monkeys]
TERASAWA GRILLEY, EI
$320,955

3R01HD011355-26S2
HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL OF PUBERTY [in rhesus monkeys]
TERASAWA GRILLEY, EI
$41,283

3R01DC004336-11S1
ENGINEERING THE VOCAL FOLD EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX [in rabbits? rats? and dogs?]
THIBEAULT, SUSAN L
$321,877

3R01GM061753-09S1
NITOGEN REDUCTION AND XENOBIOTIC RESPONSE [in humans and guinea pigs]
TREPANIER, LAUREN A
$250,171

3R01HL086975-02S1
REAL-TIME MRI-GUIDED RF ABLATION OF CARDIAC TACHYARRHYTHMIAS [in pigs]
UNAL, ORHAN
$180,457

3R01CA112192-03S1
REAL-TIME ULTRASONIC MONITORING OF TUMOR ABLATION [in woodchucks, rabbits, and pigs]
VARGHESE, TOMY
$207,946

1R03NS067274-01
PPAR-GAMMA AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET AFTER TBI [traumatic brain injury] [in mice]
VEMUGANTI, RAGHU
$74,250

3R03DC008884-03S1
PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF THE VOCAL FOLD EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX [in rats]
WELHAM, NATHAN
$37,125

3R01GM050942-13S1
FUNCTION OF 3'UTRS [in worm and frog cells?]
WICKENS, MARVIN P.
$473,266

3R21HD057684-01A2S1
NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF PATERNAL CARE IN THE COMMON MARMOSET
ZIEGLER, TONI ELAINE
$11,189

3R01NS023808-20S1
MECHANISMS UNDERLYING RHYTHM GENERATION IN IDENTIFIED SPINAL INTERNEURONS IN MICE
ZISKIND-CONHAIM, LEA
$109,890

I'll let you add it all up.

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