Friday, September 21, 2012

Citations of a Yin Publication

A few days after PETA released the photos of Double Trouble, the cat at the center of their complaints to the USDA and NIH, an editorial by Dr. Lawrence Hansen was published in the Wisconsin State Journal. See Dr. Lawrence Hansen: Cruel cat experiments unnecessary. 9-15-2012.

An anonymous poster took exception to Hansen's statement that Yin's work isn't being cited "in studies on human hearing" and pointed to a couple examples of scientists studying human hearing that he or she felt proved the point. I wondered about this.

If you go to Google Scholar and enter Yin TC or Yin TCT, you'll be able to find many papers by him, and by clicking "cited by" under an entry you can see papers that cite that one. Try it yourself: http://scholar.google.com/

I skimmed through some of the titles and finally picked one that seemed fairly on point for the sound localization experiments that Double Trouble was used in. That paper is:

Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat
LC Populin, TCT Yin - The Journal of Neuroscience, 1998.

According to Scholar it has been cited 90 times. It is the only paper I have looked at, so am making no specific claims about Yin's work overall.

I looked at each citation. If the title of the referring paper was clear, I didn't look at the abstract or the paper itself. If I was unable to tell from the title whether the referring paper was a paper on human hearing or a report on experiments on animals, I looked further, sometimes having to look at the Materials and Methods sections of the papers.

I eliminated most review articles under the belief that they were likely to cite any and every paper published over some period of time on a particular topic. I made one exception and included a review of papers based on experiments on monkeys. I also eliminated book chapters.

I ended up with a list of 73 papers published in scientific journals and one doctoral dissertation. Scholar included a paper dated two years prior to "Behavioral studies" but I went ahead and included it in the list.

In summary, 72 papers cited Yin's "Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat."

36 of the papers are reports on experiments on cats.
7 of the papers are reports on experiments on owls.
5 of the papers are reports on experiments on bats.
5 of the papers are reports on experiments on monkeys.
2 of the papers are reports on experiments on Mongolian gerbils.
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on "small ground-living animals."
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on mice.
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on "unanesthetized animals."
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on ferrets.
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on budgerigars (parakeets).
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on sand cats (Felis margarita).
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on Long-Evans rats.
1 of the papers is a report on experiments on "Three Species of Birds."
1 of the papers is a report on a computational model of the precedence effect.
4 of the papers are citations of Yin's paper by people studying humans. Three of them are from the same authors and have nothing to do with Yin's experiments on cats. Here's the passage that cites Yin:
Our goal was to develop a system that uses only a single muscle, which preferably was not used for any other natural function. As such, we chose the auricularis superior (AS) muscle (above the ear) which has no known use in humans (animals use a functionally equivalent muscle to direct the ear toward a sound source [21]). ( [21] L. C. Populin and T. C. T. Yin, “Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat,” J. Neurosci., vol. 18, pp. 2147–2160, 1998.)
The one paper that cites Yin that is a report from scientists studying human hearing is Human sound-localization behavior accounts for ocular drift. TJ Van Grootel, AJ Van Opstal - Journal of neurophysiology, 2010.

Reading through the paper it doesn't appear to me that their work with humans relied on Yin's paper, but its subject matter is over my head. In any case, it's clear that this one paper, Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat, has been largely ignored by scientists and doctors studying human hearing.

Maybe someone else will repeat this exercise for other papers from the Yin lab.

The list of referring papers summarized above:

Papers Citing: Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat LC Populin, TCT Yin - The Journal of neuroscience, 1998

1. The structure of spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex of the cat JF Brugge, RA Reale, JE Hind - The Journal of neuroscience, 1996

2. Physiological studies of the precedence effect in the inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Neural mechanisms RY Litovsky, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 1998

3. Cortical control of sound localization in the cat: unilateral cooling deactivation of 19 cerebral areas S Malhotra, AJ Hall, SG Lomber - Journal of neurophysiology, 2004

4. Location coding by opponent neural populations in the auditory cortex [cats] GC Stecker, IA Harrington, JC Middlebrooks - PLoS biology, 2005

5. Double dissociation of 'what' and 'where' processing in auditory cortex [cats] SG Lomber, S Malhotra - Nature neuroscience, 2008

6. Physiological studies of the precedence effect in the inferior colliculus of the cat. I. Correlates of psychophysics RY Litovsky, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 1998

7. Bimodal interactions in the superior colliculus of the behaving cat LC Populin, TCT Yin - The Journal of neuroscience, 2002

8. Responses of neurons to click-pairs as simulated echoes: auditory nerve to auditory cortex [unanesthetized animals] DC Fitzpatrick, S Kuwada, DO Kim, K Parham, R Batra - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1999

9. Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of cats L Xu, JC Middlebrooks - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2000

10. Can two streams of auditory information be processed simultaneously? Evidence from the gleaning bat Antrozous pallidus JR Barber, KA Razak, ZM Fuzessery - Journal of Comparative Physiology …, 2003

11. Neural correlates of the precedence effect in the inferior colliculus: effect of localization cues [cats] RY Litovsky, B Delgutte - Journal of neurophysiology, 2002

12. Sound localization during homotopic and heterotopic bilateral cooling deactivation of primary and nonprimary auditory cortical areas in the cat S Malhotra, SG Lomber - Journal of neurophysiology, 2007

13. Sound-localization performance in the cat: the effect of restraining the head DJ Tollin, LC Populin, JM Moore… - Journal of …, 2005

14. Pinna movements of the cat during sound localization LC Populin, TCT Yin - The Journal of neuroscience, 1998

15. Responses of auditory cortical neurons to pairs of sounds: correlates of fusion and localization [cats] BJ Mickey, JC Middlebrooks - Journal of Neurophysiology, 2001

16. Azimuth coding in primary auditory cortex of the cat. I. Spike synchrony versus spike count representations JJ Eggermont, JE Mossop - Journal of neurophysiology, 1998

17. Psychophysical investigation of an auditory spatial illusion in cats: the precedence effect DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2003

18. Spectral cues explain illusory elevation effects with stereo sounds in cats DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2003

19. Functional specialization in non-primary auditory cortex of the cat: areal and laminar contributions to sound localization SG Lomber, S Malhotra, AJ Hall - Hearing research, 2007

20. Monkey sound localization: head-restrained versus head-unrestrained orienting LC Populin - The Journal of neuroscience, 2006

21. The Precedence Effect in Three Species of Birds (Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, and Taeniopygia guttata). ML Dent, RJ Dooling - Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2004

22. Neural correlates of the precedence effect in the inferior colliculus of behaving cats DJ Tollin, LC Populin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2004

23. Sound-localization experiments with barn owls in virtual space: influence of broadband interaural level difference on head-turning behavior I Poganiatz, H Wagner - Journal of Comparative Physiology A: …, 2001

24. Anesthetics change the excitation/inhibition balance that governs sensory processing in the cat superior colliculus LC Populin - The Journal of neuroscience, 2005

25. Sound localization by barn owls in a simulated echoic environment MW Spitzer, TT Takahashi - Journal of neurophysiology, 2006

26. Influence of the facial ruff on the sound-receiving characteristics of the barn owl's ears M Von Campenhausen, H Wagner - Journal of Comparative Physiology A: …, 2006

27. Sound localization deficits during reversible deactivation of primary auditory cortex and/or the dorsal zone [cats] S Malhotra, GC Stecker… - Journal of … neurophysiology, 2008

28. Effect of eye position on saccades and neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli in the superior colliculus of the behaving cat LC Populin, DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2004

29. Postnatal development of sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the cat: monaural characteristics DJ Tollin, K Koka - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2009

30. Sound localization behavior in ferrets: comparison of acoustic orientation and approach-to-target responses FR Nodal, VM Bajo, CH Parsons, JW Schnupp, AJ King - Neuroscience, 2008

31. Graded sparing of visually-guided orienting following primary visual cortex ablations within the first postnatal month [cats] BR Payne, SG Lomber, CD Gelston - Behavioural brain research, 2000

32. Sensitivity of auditory cortical neurons to the locations of leading and lagging sounds [cats] BJ Mickey, JC Middlebrooks - Journal of neurophysiology, 2005

33. Investigations of the precedence effect in budgerigars: The perceived location of auditory images ML Dent, RJ Dooling - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2003

34. The absence of spatial echo suppression in the echolocating bats Megaderma lyra and Phyllostomus discolor M Schuchmann, M Hübner… - Journal of experimental biology, 2006

35. Can measures of sound localization acuity be related to the precision of absolute location estimates? [cats] JM Moore, DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Hearing research, 2008

36. Mammalian ear specializations in arid habitats: structural and functional evidence from sand cat (Felis margarita) G Huang, J Rosowski, M Ravicz, W Peake - Journal of Comparative Physiology, 2002

37. Resolution in azimuth sound localization in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) JK Maier, GM Klump - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2006

38. Improvements of sound localization abilities by the facial ruff of the barn owl (Tyto alba) as demonstrated by virtual ruff removal L Hausmann, M Von Campenhausen, F Endler… - PloS one, 2009

39. Substrates of auditory frequency integration in a nucleus of the lateral lemniscus [mustached bat] A Yavuzoglu, BR Schofield, JJ Wenstrup - Neuroscience, 2010

40. The local loop of the saccadic system closes downstream of the superior colliculus [cats] R Kato, A Grantyn, Y Dalezios, AK Moschovakis - Neuroscience, 2006

41. Physiological and psychophysical modeling of the precedence effect [computational model] J Xia, A Brughera, HS Colburn… - JARO- Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 2010

42. Influence of sound source location on the behavior and physiology of the precedence effect in cats ML Dent, DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2009

43. Postnatal development of sound pressure transformations by the head and pinnae of the cat: Binaural characteristics DJ Tollin, K Koka - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2009

44. Spatial sound detection and the role of the inferior colliculus in the Long-Evans rat MC Zrull, JR Coleman - Acta oto-laryngologica, 1999

45. Psychophysical and physiological studies of the precedence effect in cats ML Dent, DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - Acta acustica united with acustica, 2005

46. Owl's behavior and neural representation predicted by Bayesian inference BJ Fischer, JL Peña - Nature neuroscience, 2011

47. Psychophysical and physiological studies of the precedence effect and echo threshold in the behaving cat D Tollin, M Dent, T Yin - Auditory Signal Processing, 2005

48. Cats exhibit the Franssen Effect illusion ML Dent, DJ Tollin, TCT Yin - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2004

49. Circuitry underlying spectrotemporal integration in the auditory midbrain [mustached bats] A Yavuzoglu, BR Schofield… - The Journal of Neuroscience, 2011

50. Kinematics of eye movements of cats to broadband acoustic targets LC Populin, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 1999

51. Perception of auditory signals [review of “recent studies in the macaque monkey”] GH Recanzone - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2011

52. Localization dominance and the effect of frequency in the Mongolian Gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus M Wolf, M Schuchmann, L Wiegrebe - Journal of Comparative Physiology …, 2010

53. Brain–Muscle–Computer Interface: Mobile-Phone Prototype Development and Testing [human] S Vernon, SS Joshi - Information Technology in Biomedicine, …, 2011

In context:
Many novel systems have been developed to date that interface body parts with assistive technologies for severely paralyzed persons. Each of these systems has unique advantages and disadvantages. Previously developed systems include headcontrolled systems [1], tongue-operated systems [17], eye-gaze systems [18], voice systems [19], and breath operated systems [20]. One potential issue with these systems is that they use muscles and/or functions that are needed for other vital activities. For example, tongue operated systems require full dedication of the mouth, and eye-gaze systems require full dedication of the eyes. Our goal was to develop a system that uses only a single muscle, which preferably was not used for any other natural function. As such, we chose the auricularis superior (AS) muscle (above the ear) which has no known use in humans (animals use a functionally equivalent muscle to direct the ear toward a sound source [21]). [21] L. C. Populin and T. C. T. Yin, “Behavioral studies of sound localization in the cat,” J. Neurosci., vol. 18, pp. 2147–2160, 1998.
54. Sensitivity of the mouse to changes in azimuthal sound location: angular separation, spectral composition, and sound level. PD Allen, JR Ison - Behavioral neuroscience, 2010

55. Brain-muscle-computer interface using a single surface electromyographic signal: Initial results [human. Same citation as above re the auricularis superior (AS) muscle] SS Joshi, AS Wexler… - … (NER), 2011 5th …, 2011 - ieeexplore.ieee.org

56. Target modality determines eye-head coordination in nonhuman primates: implications for gaze control LC Populin, AZ Rajala - Journal of Neurophysiology, 2011

57. Human sound-localization behavior accounts for ocular drift [human] TJ Van Grootel, AJ Van Opstal - Journal of neurophysiology, 2010

58. Object localization in cluttered acoustical environments [barn owl] TT Takahashi, CH Keller, BS Nelson, MW Spitzer… - Biological cybernetics, 2008

59. Spatial echo suppression and echo-acoustic object normalization in echolocating bats M Schuchmann - 2007 - edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de

60. Acoustic pursuit of invisible moving targets by cats RE Beitel - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1999

61. Responses of neurons in the cat primary auditory cortex to sequential sounds J Zhang, KT Nakamoto, LM Kitzes - Neuroscience, 2009

62. Direct projections of omnipause neurons to reticulospinal neurons: A double-labeling light microscopic study in the cat A Grantyn, B Kuze, AM Brandi… - The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2010

63. Location Coding by Opponent Neural Populations in the Auditory Cortex [cats] 医学期刊, 医学会议, 医学教育, 专业资料, 医学论坛… [Chinese characters] - journal.9med.net

64. Multidimensional control using a mobile-phone based brain-muscle-computer interface [human, as above] S Vernon, SS Joshi - … in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, …, 2011 - ieeexplore.ieee.org

65. Functional Specialization in Primary and Non-primary Auditory Cortex [cat] SG Lomber, AJ McMillan - The Auditory Cortex, 2011

66. Short-latency, goal-directed movements of the pinnae to sounds that produce auditory spatial illusions [cats] DJ Tollin, EM McClaine, TCT Yin - Journal of neurophysiology, 2010

67. Time course of allocation of spatial attention by acoustic cues in non-human primates LC Populin, AZ Rajala - European Journal of Neuroscience, 2010

68. The impact of early reflections on binaural cues [small ground-living animals] B Gourévitch, R Brette - The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2012

69. The roles of auditory brainstem structures in analyses of complex sounds [dissertation. mustached bats] A Yavuzoglu - 2010 - etd.ohiolink.edu:
Seventeen adult mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii), captured in Trinidad and Tobago, were used to examine sources of inputs to combinatorial neurons of the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL). Sixteen mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii) captured from Trinidad and Tobago, were used to examine sources of inputs to facilitative combinatorial neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC). Our procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy. These procedures follow guidelines set by the National Institutes of Health for the care and use of laboratory animals.
70. The need for a cool head: reversible inactivation reveals functional segregation in auditory cortex [cats] CJ Sumner, AR Palmer, DR Moore - Nature neuroscience, 2008

71. Behavioral responses to frequency-specific head-related transfer functions as filtered by the facial ruff in the Barn owl (Tyto alba) EL Hausmann – 2010

72. Dissociative effects of methylphenidate in nonhuman primates: Trade-offs between cognitive and behavioral performance AZ Rajala, JB Henriques, LC Populin - Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 2012 - MIT Press

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