The fact that a vivisector with a history of lying to the public can keep moving upward in the NIIH and gain increasing power and influence along the way helps to explain the intransigence of the agency. NIH's extreme position on animal care and use is largely uncompromising. One glimmer of hope is the recent change of course on the use of chimpanzees, but in context -- the fact that the rest of the world had stopped and in some cases formally banned the use of chimpanzees -- it is clear that it takes massive long-term pressure and embarrassment on the international stage to move the NIH to alter its anything-goes de facto policy on the use of animals.
Anyway, Insel's support for hurting and killing chimpanzees and his position of power in the NIH made me start wondering sometime ago about the directors of the other institutes, centers, and offices that comprise the NIH. So, I decided to take the time to find out just how common it is to find a vivisector at the head of one of those taxpayer-funded agencies.
I looked at each Institute's home page, read the director's bio when one was provided, which they commonly are, and used either the accompanying publication list or PubMed to gain some inkling of their past and current work. The dollar figures are from the NIH Almanac's 2013 data. the most recent funding information currently shown at the time of this writing.
Of the 27 Institutes and Centers that are the National Institutes of Health, and including NIH Director Francis S. Collins in the count, eighteen of them are vivisectors. That statistic is somewhat skewed and makes it seemed a little more "balanced" than it actually is. The National Library of Medicine and the Center for Information Technology naturally do not fund experiments on animals, and it appears that the National Institute of Nursing doesn't either, So, looking only at the agencies that do fund experiments on animals, seventeen of the twenty-four, or about 70% of the Institutes and Center that comprise the NIH are run by vivisectors.
Given their likely propensity to support work and methods like their own, it is unsurprising that the NIH is stuck in the rut of animal experimentation. More surprising perhaps, is that even with all these vivisectors at the helm, a little more than half the money it allocates to researchers goes to non-animal projects. Even vivisectors recognize that human-based research is the best avenue for medical advancement.
National Institutes of Health
Director: Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.
Vivisector. Has his own mouse lab.
The fact the person at the very top of the pyramid is a vivisector is telling. As in many hierarchies peopled by ideologues, the behavior and opinions of those at the top have significant influence on the opinions and behavior of those below them. It shouldn't come as a surprise that vivisectors promote and support other vivisectors.
National Cancer Institute (NCI) $4,807,450,000. And an additional (B&F) $118,802,000 which, "Includes amounts specified for facilities repairs and improvements at the National Cancer Institute—Frederick Federally Funded Research and Development Center in Frederick, MD. B&F, often referred to as NCI-Construction."
Director: Harold E. Varmus, M.D.
Vivisector. "The Varmus laboratory uses a variety of experimental approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, with an emphasis on the use of mouse models of human cancer and human lung adenocarcinomas."
Harold Varmus is a past director of the NIH. In 1997, I participated in a demonstration in front of his Georgetown home. We were urging him to take steps to end primate experimentation. The demo didn't have any effect. It was shortly afterwards that he was participating in the formal installment of J. Michael Bishop as the new chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco. Varmus and Bishop shared 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes," a discovery that still doesn't seem to have led to any therapeutic application.
Anyway, a number of activists had gotten wind of the event, and wouldn't you know it, they continually disrupted the affair by periodically standing up and asking Varmus or Bishop about the monkeys suffering in their cages across the street in the USCF labs; everyone who asked a question was hustled out of the small auditorium by a guard; most were arrested.
National Eye Institute (NEI) $666,036,000.
Director: Paul A. Sieving, M.D., Ph.D.
Vivisector. Experiments on mice and rat's eyes.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) $2,918,317,000.
Director: Gary H. Gibbons, M.D.
Primarily human-based studies
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) $486,104,000.
Director: Eric D. Green, M.D., Ph.D.
Gene mapping. In vitro.
National Institute on Aging (NIA) $1,045,849,000.
Director: Richard J. Hodes, M.D.
Vivisector. He experiments on mice.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) $435,535,000.
Director: George Koob, Ph.D.
Vivisector. Just plain evil. Addicts animals to various drugs, studies chronic pain in animals.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) $4,256,327,000.
Director: Anthony Fauci, M.D.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) $507,822,000.
Director: Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D.
Vivisector. "We utilized plastic collars which were placed around the necks of mice to prevent them from scratching their ears during the development of CH [contact hypersensitivity]. This allowed us to assess ear swelling as an index of CH, obviating the effects of scratching that occurs during the development of CH. Collared mice: a model to assess the effects of scratching. Takeuchi S, Yasukawa F, Furue M, Katz SI. J Dermatol Sci. 2010
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) $320,697,000.
Director: Roderic I. Pettigrew, M.D., Ph.D.
Mostly clinical research, but dabbles in vivisection: Effects of mechanical properties and atherosclerotic artery size on biomechanical plaque disruption - mouse vs. human. Riou LM, Broisat A, Ghezzi C, Finet G, Rioufol G, Gharib AM, Pettigrew RI, Ohayon J. J Biomech. 2014.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) $1,252,430,000.
Director: Alan E. Guttmacher, M.D.
His research seems to have been focused on the identification of the genes involved in a condition called Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia. It does not seem to have involved animals. Nevertheless, Stephen J. Suomi, Ph.D., Harry Harlow's star pupil, is Chief of the Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, a primate vivisection laboratory that is part of the NICHD, and Guttmacher seems not to have taken any steps to close it down during the tenure.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) $394,546,000.
Director: James Battey, Jr., M.D., Ph.D.
Vivisector. He is also the chair of the Trans-NIH Mouse Genomics and Genetics Resources Coordinating Group.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) $389,274,000.
Director: Martha J. Somerman, D.D.S., Ph.D.
Vivisector. "A variety of approaches are taken, including in vitro cell and organ culture, transgenic animal models for studying gene function, in vivo models for studying periodontal repair and regeneration..."
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) $1,845,601,000.
Director: Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D., M.A.C.P
Vivisector. "Mice ... age were injected i.p. with varying amounts of bacteria (CFU). An optimal concentration to induce sepsis and mortality within 72 h was determined for E. coli and S. aureus. In survival experiments using this concentration, survival was monitored every 6 h. To determine the bacterial dissemination to large organs during sepsis, liver and lung tissues were harvested 24 h after S. aureus or E. coli infection." Olfactomedin 4 inhibits cathepsin C-mediated protease activities, thereby modulating neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in mice. Liu W, Yan M, Liu Y, McLeish KR, Coleman WG Jr, Rodgers GP. J Immunol. 2012 Sep.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) $998,389,000.
Director: Nora D. Volkow, M.D.
Vivisector and cheerleader for vivisection. Long-term safety of stimulant use for ADHD: findings from nonhuman primates. Volkow ND. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) $724,597,000.
Director: Linda S. Birnbaum, Ph.D., D.A.B.T., A.T.S.
Vivisector. In this paper she reports on the effects of putting flame retardant in rats' stomachs: Disposition and kinetics of Tetrabromobisphenol A in female Wistar Han rats. Knudsen GA, Sanders JM, Sadik AM, Birnbaum LS. Toxicol Rep. 2014.
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) $2,303,204,000.
Director: Jon R. Lorsch, Ph.D.
He seems to be studying ribosomes in yeast.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) $1,403,005,000.
Director: Thomas R. Insel, M.D.
Vivisector. Previous director of the Yerkes Primate Center. He was the director when Jerom was killed.
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) $262,011,000.
Director: Yvonne T. Maddox, Ph.D. (Acting)
Vivisector. She has not published much recently. Earlier in her career she reported on her experiments on rats.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) $1,541,480,000.
Director: Story Landis, Ph.D.
Vivisector. She just announced her retirement.
Walter J. Koroshetz has been named acting director. His work appears to be primarily clinical in nature.
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) $137,213,000.
Director Patricia A. Grady, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N.
National Library of Medicine (NLM) $320,016,000.
Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D.
See too, the memorial site of the
National Center for Research Resources $1,257,754,000 in 2011, its final year.
Director: Andrea T. Norris
Center for Scientific Review (CSR)
Director: Richard Nakamura, Ph.D.
Vivisector. At one time he was the Coordinator of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's (ADAMHA) Office of Animal Research Issues. Past primate vivisector.
John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC) $65,988,000.
Director: Roger I. Glass, M.D., Ph.D.
Primarily clinical research and public health.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) $121,373,000.
Josephine P. Briggs, M.D.
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) $545,336,000.
Director: Christopher P. Austin, M.D.
Vivisector. The invented term translational science(s?) is a response by vivisectors who have been hammered over the past decade by observations by hardball medical researchers who have called attention to the plain fact that vanishingly few research projects using so called animal models of human biology ever lead to improvements in clinical care. They have suggested that the differences in species simply make it very unlikely that experimental data from one species can be translated into therapeutics for a different species. The response from vivisectors and the institutions that get rich by hosting their labs was to christen new "centers" for "translational" science. As if calling a spade a heart will make it so.
NIH Clinical Center (CC)
John I. Gallin, M.D.
Gallin's own research is mostly clinical, but even he, the director of the NIH Clinical Center, was using mice as recently as 2007.
Division of Program Coordination, Planning and Strategic Initiatives
Located within the Office of the Director (OD) $1,448,420,000., activities directed by DPCPSI include:
• NIH Common Fund
• OAR: Office of AIDS Research
• OBSSR: Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research
• ODS: Office of Dietary Supplements
• ORWH: Office of Research on Women’s Health
• OSC: Office of Strategic Coordination