Research results direct from the National Institutes of Health. Rather than a national healthcare system we support a white-coat welfare system.
Age-Dependent Variation in Behavior Following Acute Ethanol Administration in Male and Female Adolescent Rhesus Macaques(Macaca mulatta). Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Feb;31(2):228-37.
Schwandt ML, Barr CS, Suomi SJ [Harry Harlow's best-known grad student], Higley JD. Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH Animal Center, Poolesville, Maryland.
Background: There has been considerable focus on the adolescent stage of development in the study of alcohol use and the etiology of alcohol-related problems. Because adolescence is a process of dynamic change rather than a discrete or static stage of development, it is important to consider ontogenetic changes in the response to ethanol within the adolescent time period. In rodents, levels of ethanol-induced motor impairment have been shown to increase from early to late adolescence. This study investigated associations between behavior following acute ethanol administration and age, rearing condition (mother-reared vs nursery-reared), and serotonin transporter (rh5-HTTLPR) genotype in a sample of alcohol-naive adolescent rhesus macaques. Methods: Rhesus macaques (n=97; 41 males, 56 females), ranging in age from 28 to 48 months, were administered intravenous (IV) doses of ethanol (2.2 g/kg for males, 2.0 g/kg for females) twice in 2 separate testing sessions. A saline/ethanol group (n=16; 8 males, 6 females) was administered saline in 1 testing session and ethanol in the second session. Following each IV injection, subjects underwent a 30-minute general motor behavioral assessment. Behavior in the saline/ethanol group was compared between the saline and ethanol-testing sessions using analysis of variance. Behavioral data for the larger study sample were averaged between the 2 testing sessions and summarized using factor analysis. Rotated factor scores were used as dependent variables in multiple regression analyses to test for relationships between behavior and age, rearing condition, and rh5-HTTLPR genotype. Results: During the ethanol-testing session, behaviors indicative of motor impairment (stumbles, falls, sways, bumping the wall, and unsuccessful jumps) were frequently observed in the saline/ethanol group, while they did not occur under the saline-testing session. Factor analysis of behavior following ethanol administration in the larger study sample yielded 3 factors: Ataxia, Impaired Jumping Ability, and Stimulation. Significant negative correlations between age and Ataxia were found for both males and females. Females also exhibited positive correlations between age and Impaired Jumping Ability and age and Stimulation. No significant correlations were found with either rearing condition or rh5-HTTLPR genotype. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ontogenetic changes during adolescence in the behavioral response to ethanol differ between rodents and primates. Furthermore, sex differences in the behavioral response to ethanol appear to develop during adolescence.
"During the ethanol-testing session, behaviors indicative of motor impairment (stumbles, falls, sways, bumping the wall, and unsuccessful jumps) were frequently observed in the saline/ethanol group, while they did not occur under the saline-testing session."
Wow! That knowledge is much more important than making sure children get food and healthcare. I trust the govenment to always act in my best interest.